Sunday, January 18, 2009

PREVENTION OF HIV-AIDS: Everything u wanted to know

Warning: Although the following article is strictly not immoral it contains one or two stretches relating to sex and may be unsuitable for users who regard the subject as a taboo or to minors. I advise such persons to skip this article. However, allusions made thereto are merely enhancements, properly so called to expound on a point or two.

HIV-AIDS prevention is an hackneyed subject and may appear to individuals as commonplace and easy but yet, at the expiry of your reading the following, you should be asking yourself which else isn’t said.

It is common knowledge that the vast majority of all HIV infections occur through sexual intercourse and that HIV can also be transmitted by infected blood or blood products, by the sharing of contaminated needles, and from an infected woman to her baby before birth, during delivery or through breast feeding. And also that it is not spread through ordinary social contacts.

Also that sexual transmission of HIV can be prevented by abstinence, fidelity between uninfected partners, and safer sex which includes non-penetrative sex, and sex with condoms as well as that Children need education about AIDS prevention before they become sexually active and everyone needs easy access to condoms in case of need.

But however, in spite of the foregoing, we have failed either by omission or commission to adequately understand the implications of ignoring these awareness. To better understand the modes of prevention, it should be appropriate to explain the modes of transmission in tandem. Below, I have detailed these issues to suit our understanding


The first is that do not be fooled into thinking you are safe from the disease as a teenager because so few young people have AIDS. AIDS was first discovered in 1981 and since then, transmission of the disease amongst many other modes has been through mother to child. A substantial number of people with AIDS are in their teens and twenties now who became infected in their infancy or teens. Because of the long incubation period, AIDS does not appear until years after exposure to HIV. Thus, if a person is exposed to HIV in his infancy or teens, AIDS may not appear until the person is in his or her twenties. Therefore, teenagers as well should forebear from sexual activities and drug use for these definitely contribute to the HIV infection rate. Still, do not skip the use of wearing a condom because you are having intercourse with a teenager or virgin.

Also, HIV is primarily a sexually transmitted Infection (STI), thus the modes of transmission are much the same as with other STIs such as syphilis and gonorrhea. Certain sexual practices are very likely to transmit HIV. Receptive anal-rectal intercourse (i.e. allowing the penis to enter one’s rectum) appears to be the most dangerous sexual practice. This is true for both men and women. Because the lining of the rectum is a thin, single-cell layer, HIV-infected lymphocytes in semen can migrate into the body through breaks in the tissue. This area of the body is highly supplied with blood vessels and insertion of the penis or other objects may result in tearing and bleeding. In addition, lymphocytes can migrate through the inner tissue under their own power.

Fellatio (i.e. kissing and insertion of the penis into the partner’s mouth) and Cunnilingus (i.e. kissing and insertion of the tongue in to the vagina) may also be a means of HIV transmission. Saliva varies greatly in number of migrant lymphocytes and may not play much of a part in the transmission of HIV. Most authorities suggest that dry kissing is perfectly safe but that oral forms of sex may be unsafe. People with teeth or gum infections are particularly at risk. Especially if ejaculation into the mouth takes place. The possibility that teeth may accidentally break the skin of the penis is another possible risk. Since the semen of infected males has a high concentration of HIV, it is probably not a good idea to swallow semen, although it is thought that acids and enzymes in the digestive system destroy HIV.

Vaginal intercourse can transmit HIV/AIDS to either men or women. The lining of the vagina is thick and difficult for the HIV-infected lymphocytes to penetrate. In addition, the normally acidic environment of the vagina is not hospitable to lymphocytes, sperms or HIV. However, the cervix and uterus have a single layer of cells that can be easily penetrated. Semen is most likely to reach the uterus with prolonged or repeated acts of intercourse.

Uncircumcised men are more likely to become infected than those circumcised. This is because the inside covering a redundant foreskin tends to remain damp, infected with a variety of bacteria and thin, especially in the region of the frenulum which is relatively fragile. Thus, migratory lymphocytes in endo-cervical mucus secretions, although less numerous than lymphocytes in semen are provided with relatively easy access to penile lymphatics.

Other STIs such as herpes, Chlamydia and syphilis, all increase the risk of AIDS. For example, women who suffer from genital ulcers (caused by syphilis, chancroid and herpes) or clamydia are two or ten times more likely to become infected with HIV. STDs cause lesions and breaks in the skin, thus allowing easier access to HIV-infected lymphocytes. Genital herpes appears to be a major factor in the sexual spread of HIV. People infected with HIV give off large amounts of the virus through herpes sores when they have flare-ups. About two-thirds of HIV+ persons also carry herpes virus type 2, the genital herpes virus which is also carried by lymphocytes.

Birth control pills make women more susceptible to HIV and other cell-borne sexually transmitted infections because progesterones in the pills cause the uterine cervical opening to efface and therefore expose more single layered epithelial cells through which lymphocytes can migrate easily

HIV appears to be transmitted relatively inefficiently from mother to offspring. The mechanism of transmission to the fetus or newborn appears to happen via provirus infected lymphocytes that migrate from her through the placenta at the time of labor and birth to infect her offspring. Interestingly, it has been found that women who give birth more than four hours after their “water breaks” (rupture of the fetal membranes, the protective sac that surrounds the fetus in the womb) are nearly twice as likely to transmit HIV to their infants as compared to women who deliver within four hours of water breaks. The rate of transmission appear less for infants born via Caesarian section than born vaginally.

An HIV mother can also infect her newborn infant by breast-feeding, although the exact risk is unknown. Most likely, the transmission of HIV occurs in the early stages after birth when there is a high colostrums content in the breast milk.

High risk group’s sexual behaviours and drug-related activities remain another major means by which HIV is transmitted especially in the advanced worlds. This information tells us that engaging in sexual activities or drug activities with multiple partners and without discrimination is dangerous. Primarily, HIV is spread through sharing of virus infected lymphocytes in semen (the thick whitish fluid secreted by the male during ejaculation) and in blood.

HIV also spreads through HIV-infected lymphocytes transfusion of blood, blood products, and tissues such as in an organ transplant. It can also be transmitted via artificial insemination.

You must understand that even if you personally do not engaged in risky sexual behaviour or use IV drugs, HIV can still be transmitted to you.


In pursuant of the foregoing, reversing the mode of transmission is basically the best way to prevent HIV-AIDS. However, below is a summary of some precautions that will help you from contracting or spreading HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

Disclose to your partner or spouse your HIV status. This reminds me of an incident a friend had with his lady in 2000. During a prolonged courting experience, he decided one day to force his way through in order to turn the table of postponement around. It was past mid night and they were lying astride each other, petting as they had been doing erstwhile without the appropriate results. Mindful of the two bottles of beer he’d imbibed that evening, he got so anxious as to violate her. During the process, she grabbed hold of his manhood restrictively as it neared her woman orifice, but in spite of this, he almost succeeded to aim it into her before he heard the stretches of a sentence that totally changed his life for ever. She screamed above her ranting that she was HIV+ and she wanted to help him. Before she could finished her last word, the gentleman was standing at the foot of the bed. Stunned and anxious as would someone after knowing he’d just eaten an unclean flesh of a mammal. He’d asked her why she kept if from him hitherto. She told him, she was stricken with the dilemma of losing or infecting him. The latter was seeming plausible because she sought after him. But some good angel was asking her not to do it. She passed away last November 2009. In October 1991 in the USA, Alberto Gonzalez (Oregon) became the first person in the country to be convicted on assault charges for knowingly passing HIV to his girlfriend. So let us beware and be responsible citizens.

Sexual abstinence, especially when caring relationship is not involved

Sexual fidelity and practice chastity.

If you want to have sexual relations but are not in permanent monogamous relationship, use mechanical barriers to prevent the exchange of potentially infectious body fluids, especially blood, semen and uterine secretions

Avoid anal intercourse with or without a condom because it is the most dangerous way to share semen; and condoms are not well designed for this sexual expression.

Avoid sexual relations with persons at great riskfor being HIV+ or having AIDS or other transmissible viruses.

Do no use alcohol or drugs. They interfere with you caring for yourself as well as for others and especially avoid the use of drugs that are injected into the veins.

Do not share needles used for injecting drugs into the veins or handle sharp instruments contaminated with another person’s blood.

Do not share toothbrushes

Do not practice cunnilingus or Fellatio.

If you know well ahead of time that you might need blood during an operation, pre-donate yourself and let your caring friends of similar blood type know that their donations would be appreciated.

Use barriers proven to prevent pregnancy as well as sexually transmitted diseases such as: Latex condoms that can protect a woman and a man from sharing semen and vagina secretions during conventional vaginal intercourse; doctor-prescribed and fitted vaginal diaphragms or cervical caps that block semen from reaching the uterus.; in addition use spermicides such as nonoxynol-9, which paralyzes sperm and migrant lymphocytes that might have gotten past the barrier. A few people will have allergic reactions to specific spermicides.

Practice the responsibility of discussing sex and STIs with young and inexperience children.

HIV 'Prevention Pills'

Testing of an AIDS "prevention pill" on about 860 high-risk women in Cameroon, Ghana, and Nigeria suggest that the approach is safe and feasible, according to research presented at the conference. While the numbers were too small to prove effectiveness, the research is encouraging enough to "suggest it is good for HIV prevention.



Jack W. Shields.



Why Can't Mosquitoes Carry the HIV virus?

By: Harold Oster

Question :

Watching all the news coverage of West Nile disease makes me wonder how doctors can be so sure that AIDS can't be transferred by mosquitoes. Malaria is transferred by mosquitoes. Sleeping sickness is caused by the tsetse fly. If these insects can carry these diseases, why are you so sure they can't carry AIDS?

Answer :

Mosquitoes and other insects are responsible for a tremendous number of illnesses and deaths in the world. Malaria kills about two million people each year. Yellow fever, sleeping sickness, viral encephalitis, Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever are also common illnesses transmitted by bugs. However, HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) is not transmitted in this fashion.

Early in the HIV/AIDS epidemic, a major concern was whether everyone would be at risk of infection through contact with mosquitoes or other insects. (In fact, a paper published some years ago alleged that this was occurring in an area in Florida.) Further analysis discredits the theory that bugs can spread the infection. If mosquitoes did indeed transmit HIV, there would be many outbreaks among people with no known risk factors for infection. Children and the elderly, people not likely to be exposed to HIV by sexual contact or intravenous drug use, would commonly be HIV-infected. This is what occurs with viral encephalitis, including infection with the West Nile virus. Everyone is at risk, not just those who have had unprotected sex, shared needles (for injecting drugs) or had another type of exposure known to transmit the virus.

Even in theory, it would be very unlikely that HIV could be spread in such a fashion. With malaria and other insect-borne infections, the organisms survive and actually multiply in the insect. HIV, in contrast, does not survive outside the body for very long, and it does not replicate in insects. In addition, mosquitoes transmit malaria and other infections when they inject saliva into the victim. HIV does not get into the insect's saliva much at all, and mosquitoes do not inject blood into the victim. Furthermore, blood that remains on the bug's mouth or other body parts after it bites an AIDS victim also does not pose much risk, because the amount of blood present is very small, and the insect usually does not go directly from one feeding to another.


Diseases of AIDS: Everything you didn’t know.

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